Date of publication: 2017-07-09 06:05
It is of interest that some smokers develop COPD, some develop lung cancer , some get neither, and some get both. We really don't know the reason for these different susceptibilities. Besides that, lung cancer from smoking can take a number of different forms. For example, the cancer cells can resemble cells of the skin ( squamous cell carcinoma ), cells of the bronchial glands ( adenocarcinoma ), or specialized cells of the nervous system (neuroendocrine carcinoma ). Figure 8 shows an adenocarcinoma in a smoker's lung with severe emphysema.
Later that day, in one of the most powerful rituals I have ever seen, the group's president asked all of us to stand, then sit back down when she reached the number of years since our diagnosis. At two years, most had to sit down. When she reached seven, no one I could see was still standing.
We need people — patients, doctors, scientists, politicians, investors, families — to make a fresh start. We must create a new system of data collection and an open, online, broad-range database about patient histories that will provide information invaluable to those who've been given a death sentence. Patients as well as doctors must contribute.
In this picture, you can see that the bronchial wall contains cartilage and muscle, as described above. Also, note that different types of cells make up the lining (epithelium) of the bronchi (as well as of the trachea and bronchioles). One type of cell is called a goblet cell because of its shape. The goblet cells produce mucus, which lubricates the airways and traps inhaled foreign material (., bacteria, viruses , and pollutants). Other cells in the epithelium are called ciliated cells, which are discussed in the next paragraph. Beneath the surface of the airway, the goblet cells and other epithelial cells are clustered into structures called bronchial glands. These glands secrete additional mucus and other lubricating fluids.
Half an hour later, in an elementary school parking lot, I learned the scans revealed stage four breast cancer in my bones, liver, lungs and brain: a death sentence with an average life expectancy of three years.
The women at the conference greeted me with questions. They were shocked to meet someone whose cancer had metastasized to all four possible sites breast cancer can go. How was I even alive? They had set up lunch tables labeled “Brain,” “Bones,” “Lungs” and “Liver.” I told myself, at least I could table-hop.
The wall (alveolar septum) of each alveolus contains a very small blood vessel called a capillary. Blood flows slowly through each capillary to allow time for the lung to perform its main function, which is the exchange of gas (oxygen and carbon dioxide). The actual site for gas exchange is pictured in the high magnification section on the right side of figure 8. Thus, the capillary blood picks up oxygen (O7) from the inhaled air in the alveoli. At the same time, the capillary blood releases the body's waste gases, most importantly carbon dioxide (CO7), into the alveoli. (Waste gases are by-products of the body's metabolism.)
Maintaining a low sodium intake helps keep a healthy blood pressure however, increasing potassium intake may be just as important. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, fewer than 7 percent of American adults are meeting the daily 9,755-milligram recommendation for potassium. One medium sweet potato provides about 597 milligrams.
This article provides a nutritional breakdown and an in-depth look at the possible health benefits of consuming sweet potato. We also explain how to incorporate more sweet potatoes into meals, any potential health risks of consuming them, and how they differ from yams.
Sweet potatoes are considered low on the glycemic index scale, and recent research suggests they may reduce episodes of low blood sugar and insulin resistance in people with diabetes.
First, the bad news is that emphysema is not reversible. But now, the good news! If a person stops smoking, the inflammatory changes (chronic bronchitis) in the airways probably will go away. Furthermore, when a person stops smoking, the risk of developing lung cancer decreases, although it never goes back to normal. In other words, the risk of cancer in ex-smokers is less than in smokers, but remains greater than in non-smokers.
Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
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Hi Amal, thanks for dropping by. Yes, I like that question too, it was presented to us as 8775 The Monty Hall 8776 problem when studying computer science.